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      元宵節

      元宵節耍獅子有什么來歷

      時間:2018-2-1 9:58:45   作者:   來源:   閱讀:12   評論:0

        耍獅子的來歷


        玩獅子又稱舞獅,是一種優秀的傳統民俗藝術,每逢元宵佳節或集會慶典,民間都以舞獅前來助興。這一習俗起源于三國時期,南北朝時開始流行,至今已有一千多年的歷史。表演者在鑼鼓音樂下, 裝扮成獅子的樣子, 作出獅子的各種形態動作。民俗傳統認為舞獅可以驅邪辟鬼。故此每逢喜慶節日,例如新張慶典、迎春賽會等, 都喜歡打鑼打鼓, 舞獅助慶。舞獅亦跟隨著華人移居海外而聞名世界,馬來西亞、新加坡等地相當盛行舞獅。聚居歐美的海外華人亦組成不少醒獅會,每年的春節或重大喜慶, 他們都會在世界各地舞獅慶祝。


        耍獅子簡介


        玩獅子又稱舞獅。其外貌和真獅相似,全身用染為深綠或金黃色的苧麻,縫綴于雙層厚布之上,梳成毿毿濃密的獅身,頭部龐大猙獰,猛厲可畏,血盆大口,可張可合,項掛一串銅鈴,搖擺得響聲震耳。舞時,由兩人配合,一人執頭,一人做尾,在后邊的人跟著獅頭動作,亦步亦趨,行動迅捷,尾巴不停地搖晃。獅子大嘴片刻不息地一張一合。另一個引獅人,武士打扮,身穿密紐扣的唐代燈籠褲衫,紅條束腰,青帕裹頭,足登快靴,手拿繡球,在獅前引導,并先開拳踢打,蹦蹦跳跳,以誘獅子起舞,引得獅子張牙舞爪,忽而翹首仰視,忽而回頭低顧,忽而臥地匍匐,忽而搖頭擺尾,既有舐毛、擦腳、搔頭、洗耳、朝拜、翻滾、跌撲等,模仿動作上也有上樓臺、過天橋、跨三山、出洞、下山、滾球等技巧,其動作活潑逼真、惟妙惟肖。


        近年來,城鎮多組織文藝隊沿街公演,晚間舉辦彩燈、煙火晚會,鑼鼓鞭炮齊鳴,宛如白晝,熱熱鬧鬧,深夜方止。農村則集資購買或自制煙火,居街燃放,熱鬧非凡。鬧元宵之俗,年盛一年。聊城、臨清、高唐一帶,農村元宵節插花樹的風氣盛行。其作法是:先用棗樹枝和彩紙做成花樹,再用秫秸和彩紙做成“花姑娘”,然后把“花姑娘”掛在花樹上,最后再把花樹插到糞堆上,意在希望當年棉花豐收。


        舞龍燈介紹


        舞龍燈是元宵節流傳于各地的民間社火表演,耍法不盡相同,但技藝風格卻各有特色。傳說,早在黃帝時期,在一種《清角》的大型歌舞中,就出現過由人扮演的龍頭鳥身的形象,其后又編排了六條蛟龍互相穿插的舞蹈場面。


        在古人的心目中,龍具有呼風喚雨、消災除疫的功能,而我國自古即以農業立國,風調雨順對于生產生活具有極為重要的意義,所以古人極力希冀龍的庇佑,由此形成了在祭祀時舞龍和在元宵節舞龍燈的習俗。


        在長期的發展演變中,舞龍也形成了許多不同的樣式,主要有龍燈、布龍等。有的地方鬧元宵,各路龍燈匯集竟達百余條,隊伍長達二三里。這種習俗包含了跑步、健美、舉重等現代體育元素,而且把臂、腿、眼、手等肌體的力量有效運動起來,把喜慶、健康、美好之意用到實處,也使節日里的參加者得到了強健的體魄和充沛的精神。


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