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      七夕節

      七夕源于什么朝代_七夕最早起源于什么時候

      時間:2017-8-19 14:07:10   作者:   來源:   閱讀:0   評論:0

        七夕的起源


        七夕乞巧,最早起源于中國漢代,其起源于對自然的崇拜及婦女穿針乞巧,后被賦予牛郎織女的傳說使其成為極具浪漫色彩的節日之一。婦女穿針乞巧,祈禱福祿壽活動,禮拜七姐,陳列花果、女紅等習俗。遠傳日本、朝鮮半島、越南等漢字文化圈國家。


        2006年5月20日,七夕節經國務院批準列入第一批國家級非物質文化遺產名錄。近年來因受外來文化影響,洋節逐漸流行中國,部分商家和媒體聯合炒作,宣傳為“中國情人節”。


        七夕乞巧,這個節日起源于漢代,東晉葛洪的《西京雜記》有“漢彩女常以七月七日穿七孔針于開襟樓,人俱習之”的記載,這便是我們于古代文獻中所見到的最早的關于乞巧的記載。


        唐宋詩詞中,婦女乞巧也被屢屢提及,唐朝王建有詩說“闌珊星斗綴珠光,七夕宮娥乞巧忙”。據《開元天寶遺事》載:唐太宗與妃子每逢七夕在清宮夜宴,宮女們各自乞巧,這一習俗在民間也經久不衰,代代延續。


        宋元之際,七夕乞巧相當隆重,京城中還設有專賣乞巧物品的市場,世人稱為乞巧市。宋羅燁、金盈之輯《醉翁談錄》說:“七夕,潘樓前買賣乞巧物。自七月一日,車馬嗔咽,至七夕前三日,車馬不通行,相次壅遏,不復得出,至夜方散!痹谶@里,從乞巧市購買乞巧物的盛況,就可以推知當時七夕乞巧節的熱鬧景象。人們從七月初一就開始辦置乞巧物品,乞巧市上車水馬龍、人流如潮,到了臨近七夕的時日、乞巧市上簡直成了人的海洋,車馬難行,觀其風情,似乎不亞于最盛大的節日--春節,說明乞巧節是古人最為喜歡的節日之一。


        后牛郎織女的愛情故事融入乞巧節,民間姑娘信以為真,于是每到農歷七月初七,在牛郎織女“鵲橋會”時,姑娘們就會來到花前月下,抬頭仰望星空,尋找銀河兩邊的牛郎星和織女星,希望能看到他們一年一度的相會,乞求上天讓自己也能像織女那樣心靈手巧,祈禱自己也能有個稱心如意的美滿婚姻,久而久之便形成了七夕節。


        七夕節的習俗


        穿針乞巧


        這是最早的乞巧方式,始于漢,流于后世!段骶╇s記》說:“漢彩女常以七月七日穿七孔針于開襟樓,人具習之!蹦铣鹤谥\《荊楚歲時記》說:“七月七日,是夕人家婦女結彩樓穿七孔外,或以金銀愉石為針!薄遁浀刂尽氛f:“齊武帝起層城觀,七月七日,宮人多登之穿針。世謂之穿針樓!蔽宕跞试!堕_元天寶遺事》說:“七夕,宮中以錦結成樓殿,高百尺,上可以勝數十人,陳以瓜果酒炙,設坐具,以祀牛女二星,妃嬪各以九孔針五色線向月穿之,過者為得巧之侯。動清商之曲,宴樂達旦。土民之家皆效之!痹兆趦x《元氏掖庭錄》說:“九引臺,七夕乞巧之所。至夕,宮女登臺以五彩絲穿九尾針,先完者為得巧,遲完者謂之輸巧,各出資以贈得巧者焉!


        喜蛛應巧


        這也是較早的一種乞巧方式,其俗稍晚于穿針乞巧,大致起于南北朝之時。南朝梁宗懔《荊楚歲時記》說; “是夕,陳瓜果于庭中以乞巧。有喜子網于瓜上則以為符應!   五代王仁!堕_元天寶遺事》說:“七月七日,各捉蜘蛛于小盒中,至曉開;視蛛網稀密以為得巧之侯。密者言巧多,稀者言巧少。民間亦效之”宋朝孟元老《東京夢華錄》說,七月七夕“以小蜘蛛安合子內,次日看之,若網圓正謂之得巧!彼沃苊堋肚練q時記》說;“以小蜘蛛貯合內,以候結網之疏密為得巧之多久”明田汝成《熙朝樂事》說,七夕“以小盒盛蜘蛛,次早觀其結網疏密以為得巧多寡!庇纱丝梢,歷代驗巧之法不同,南北朝視網之有無、唐視網之稀密,宋視網之圓正,后世多遵唐俗。


        投針驗巧


        這是七夕穿針乞巧風俗的變體,源于穿針,又不同于穿針,是明清兩代的盛行的七夕節俗。明劉侗、于奕正的《帝京景物略》說:“七月七日之午丟巧針。婦女曝盎水日中,頃之,水膜生面,繡針投之則浮,看水底針影。有成云物花頭鳥獸影者,有成鞋及剪刀水茄影者,謂乞得巧;其影粗如錘、細如絲、直如軸蠟,此拙征矣!薄吨彪`志書》也說,良鄉縣(今北京西南)“七月七日,婦女乞巧,投針于水,借日影以驗工拙,至夜仍乞巧于織女”請于敏中《日下舊聞考》引《宛署雜記》說:“燕都女子七月七日以碗水暴日下,各自投小針浮之水面,徐視水底日影;蛏⑷缁,動如云,細如線,粗租如錐,因以卜女之巧!


        種生求子


        舊時習俗,在七夕前幾天,先在小木板上敷一層土,播下粟米的種子,讓它生出綠油油的嫩苗,再擺一些小茅屋、花木在上面,做成田舍人家小村落的模樣,稱為“殼板”,或將綠豆、小豆、小麥等浸于磁碗中,等它長出敷寸的芽,再以紅、藍絲繩扎成一束,稱為“種生”,又叫“五生盆”或“生花盆”。南方各地也稱為“泡巧”,將長出的豆芽稱為巧芽,甚至以巧芽取代針,拋在水面乞巧。還用蠟塑各種形象,如牛郎、織女故事中的人物,或禿鷹、鴛鴦、等動物之形,放在水上浮游,稱之為“水上浮”。又有蠟制的嬰兒玩偶,讓婦女買回家浮于水土,以為宜子之祥,稱為“化生”。


        為牛慶生


        兒童會在七夕之日采摘野花掛在牛角上,又叫“ 賀牛生日”。因為傳說西王母用天河把牛郎織女分開后,老牛為了讓牛郎能夠跨越天河見到織女,讓牛郎把它的皮刨下來,駕著它的牛皮去見織女。人們為了紀念老牛的犧牲精神,便有了“為牛慶生”的習俗。


        各民族七夕風俗習慣


        藏族


        藏族主要分布在西藏,其余在青海、甘肅、四川、云南等地。藏族人多信喇嘛教。


        敬獻“哈達”是藏族對客人最普遍、最隆重的禮節,獻的哈達越長越寬,表示的禮節也越隆重。對尊者、長輩,獻哈達的時候要雙手舉過頭,身體略向前傾,把哈達捧到座。


        藏族風情前。對平輩,只要把哈達送到對方手里或手腕上就行;對晚輩或下屬,就系在他們脖子上。如果不鞠躬或用單手送,都是不禮貌的。接受哈達的人最好做和獻哈達的人一樣的姿勢,并表示謝意。


        藏民在見面打招呼時,點頭吐舌表示親切問候,受禮者應微笑點頭為禮。有客人來拜訪,藏民們等候在帳外目迎貴客光臨。藏民們見到長者或尊敬的客人,要脫帽躬身45度,帽子拿在手上接近地面;見到平輩,頭稍低就行,帽子拿在胸前,以示禮貌。男女分坐,并習慣男坐左女坐右。


        藏民對客人有敬獻奶茶,酥油茶和青稞酒的禮俗?腿说讲刈寮依镒骺,主人要敬三杯青稞酒,不管客人會不會喝酒,都要用無名指蘸酒彈一下。如果客人不喝、不彈,主人會立即端起酒邊唱邊跳,前來勸酒。如果客人酒量小,可以喝一口,就讓添酒。連喝兩口酒后,由主人添滿杯,客人一飲而盡。這樣,客人喝得不多,主人也很滿意。按照藏族習俗,主人敬獻酥油茶,客人不能拒絕,至少要喝3碗,喝得越多越受歡迎。


        敬酥油茶的禮儀是:客人坐在藏式方桌邊,女主人拿一只鑲著銀邊的小木碗放在客人面前,接著提壺或熱水瓶給客人倒上滿碗酥油茶,主客開始聊天;等女主人再提壺,客人就可以端起碗來,輕輕地往碗里吹一圈,然后呷上一口,并說些稱贊茶打得好的話;等女主人第三次提壺時,客人呷上第二口酒;客人準備告辭,可以多喝幾口,但不能喝干,碗底一定要留點漂著油酥花的茶底。


        藏胞最忌諱別人用手撫摸佛像、經書、佛珠和護身符等圣物,認為是觸犯禁規,對人畜不利。


        維吾爾族


        維吾爾族人主要居住在新疆維吾爾自治區,信奉伊斯蘭教。維吾爾人非常重視禮貌,接待見面,習慣把手按在胸部中央,把身體前傾30度或握手,并連聲說:“您好”?腿讼囟,不要雙腿直伸,腳底朝人;院落的大門禁忌朝西開,忌諱睡覺時頭朝東腳朝西,所以在給他們分配。


        維吾爾族服飾房間、安放臥具和枕頭時,特別要注意。忌隨便走近灶臺、水缸等。


        講究衛生,經常在自來水龍頭下直接沖洗手、臉。到維爾吾族家里做客,進門前和用餐前女主人要用水壺給客人沖洗雙手,一般洗3次。習慣一人專用茶杯,住宿期間也不換。當第一次給茶杯的時候,要當著本人的面,把茶杯消毒后再用。


        在屋里就坐的時候,要跪坐,忌雙腿直伸、腳朝人。


        吃完飯有長者領著做“都瓦”的時候,忌東張西望或站起。


        在飲食方面,喜歡喝奶茶、吃馕,喜歡吃拉面和包子以及“燉整羊”、“涮羊肉”、“烤羊肉串”、“羊、牛肉的鍋貼”?狙蛉獯沁@個民族最出名的風味小吃。每餐必喝葡萄酒,酒量大。忌諱吃豬肉、狗肉、騾肉、鴿子。


        衣忌短小,上衣一般過膝,褲腳到腳面,最忌戶外穿著短褲。


        肉孜節、古爾幫節是傳統的盛大節日,不管男女老幼都喜歡戴著四楞小花帽。他們最喜歡的體育技藝是高空走大繩。


        蒙古族


        蒙古族,主要居住在內蒙古自治區。信仰喇嘛教,牧民愛穿滾邊長袍,頭上戴帽或纏布,腰帶上掛著鼻煙壺,腳穿皮靴,多住蒙古包。


        蒙古族飲酒風俗蒙古族傳統禮節,主要有獻哈達、遞鼻煙壺、裝煙和請安等,當然現在還有鞠躬禮和握手禮。獻哈達的禮節和藏族一樣。蒙古族牧民十分熱情好客、講究禮儀。請客人進入蒙古包時,總是立在門外西側,右手放在胸部微微躬身,左手指門,請客人先走?腿斯蜃,主人按淺茶滿酒的禮俗熱情敬獻上奶茶和美酒,并把哈達托著獻給客人。


        當接過主人的奶酒,最得體的是按照蒙古人敬酒的方式,左手捧杯,用右手的無名指蘸一滴酒彈向頭上方,表示先祭天,第二滴彈向地,表示祭地,第三滴酒彈向前方,表示祭祖先,隨后把酒一飲而盡。如果客人不會喝酒,只要把酒杯恭敬的放在桌上就可以了。


        招待來客的佳宴有手抓羊肉和全羊席。如果你是貴客,主人會設全羊席來款待你,表示主人對你的尊敬。蒙古人忌諱吃狗肉,不吃魚蝦等海味以及雞鴨的內臟和肥肉。送客的時候,主人送客人到蒙包外面或本地邊界。


        路過蒙古包的時候,要輕騎慢行,以免驚動畜群。進蒙古包前,要把馬鞭子放在門外,否則,會被視為對主人的不敬。進門要從左邊進,入包后在主人陪同下坐在右邊;離包的時候要走原來的路線。


        出蒙古包后,不要立即上馬上車,要走一段路,等主人回去后,再上馬上車。


        如果蒙古包前左側縛著一條繩子,繩子的一頭埋在地下,說明蒙古包里有病人,主人不能待客。


        那達慕大會是蒙古族傳統節目,一般在農歷七、八月份舉辦,是蒙古族人民一年一度群眾性的盛大集會。大年和小年是蒙古族比較重要的節日(大年就是春節,小年在臘月二十三)。


      標簽:七夕節 

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