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      寒食節

      寒食節和清明節的關系 寒食節跟清明節的區別

      時間:2019-3-29 9:34:20   作者:   來源:   閱讀:3   評論:0

          寒食節清明節的關系


          古時“清明節”與“寒食節”在時間上的關系是:清明前一天為“寒食節”,現在二者已經在習俗上合二為一了。


          清明節大約始于周代,已有二千五百多年的歷史。清明是我國農歷的二十四節氣之一,這一時節雨水增多,大地呈現春和景明之象。據傳清明節的起源于古代帝王將相“墓祭”之禮,后來民間亦相仿效,于此日祭祖掃墓。


          古時清明前一天為“寒食節”,相傳春秋時晉文公落難,介子推曾割自己的肉給他充饑,晉文公即位后,請介子推為官,介子推卻隱居綿山,晉文公放火燒山想逼出介子推,結果誤將介子推燒死。晉文公十分痛悔,下令從今往后這一天禁火。因為禁火,人們這一天只能吃冷食,故稱“寒食”。后逐漸清明寒食合二為一,歷代沿襲而成為中華民族一種傳統節日。


          寒食節跟清明節的區別


          一、功能不同:


          在清明節到來之際,寒食節也相隨而至,F在,有些人把寒食與清明混為一談,實際上是不對的。因為兩者一個是農耕節氣,一個是民俗節日,本來就不是一碼事。清明是中國農歷二十四節氣之一,一般在公歷四月四、五日前後。寒食是一個民俗節日,起源於春秋時期晉文公重耳的大臣介之推寧被燒死山西介休的綿山上、也不肯下山受封的故事。兩者一是農耕節氣,一是典故民俗,本是兩碼事;但兩節時間相距一、二天,甚至重合於一日,故有清明、寒食并稱的說法。


          二、文化內涵不同


          唐代之前,寒食與清明是兩個前后相繼但主題不同的節日,前者懷舊悼亡,后者求新護生;一陰一陽,一息一生,二者有著密切的配合關系。禁火是為了出火,祭亡是為了佑生,這就是寒食與清明的內在文化關聯。唐玄宗時,朝廷曾以政令的形式將民間掃墓的風俗固定在清明節前的寒食節,由于寒食與清明在時間上緊密相連,寒食節俗很早就與清明發生關聯,掃墓也由寒食順延到了清明。


          清明和寒食的關系演變


            一是毫無關聯階段:隋唐之前,“清明節”僅僅是指區分季節交替和農事運作的二十四節令之一,寒食節的主要項目是家家禁煙吃冷食,而且時間是在寒冷的隆冬季節。


          二是相互交融階段:隋唐五代時期,寒食節的時間確定在冬至后的“一百五”日之時,僅先于清明節一兩日,而且增加了“寒食上墓、漸已成俗、宜許上墓、同拜掃禮”的內容。


          三是清明節逐漸取代寒食節的階段:隨著時間的推移,由于寒食節中主要項目-禁煙冷食,逐漸被淡化,寒食節逐漸開始被清明節取代。到清代,寒食節流行的一些項目已不再普及,而民間掃墓與官家祭壇及皇家祭陵成為節日的活動主項目。這一時期,“寒食”名稱盡管在一些文獻、地方志和文人作品中還不時出現,但“清明”稱謂成為主流說法。清明節的產生,是借用了寒食節的節期,寒食僅先于清明一兩日,因而很自然地便被后者借用了。這種借用的文化基礎是人們世世代代傳承、積淀下來的對年節節期的習慣心理。


          寒食節的傳統食物有哪些


            1、清明果:在清明節前后制作的一種食物,果形似餃子,但味道截然不同,外皮用鼠鞠草或艾草做成,餡有韭菜、雞蛋、豆腐干等。


          2、青團:一種用草頭汁來做成的綠色糕團,清甜甘香,軟糯可口,帶有艾葉香氣。吃青團主要是流行于江南一帶的清明節,寒食節等節日,是漢族的傳統節日食品。


          3、潤餅菜:又稱潤餅、嫩餅菜,是春卷的一種,發源于泉州,而后流行于臺灣、福建地區。每到清明時節,泉州人有吃“潤餅菜”的食俗。據說,這是古時寒食節食俗之遺風。


          4、青精飯:又稱烏飯、烏米飯、烏稔飯,用糯米染烏飯樹法之汁煮成的飯,顏色烏青,為寒食節的食品之一。每年三月初三,畬族人家家戶戶煮“烏稔飯”,并饋贈漢族的親戚朋友,久而久之,當地的漢族人民也有了清明時食“烏稔飯”的習俗。


          5、寒食粥:寒食節日期間,百姓家家不許動煙火,需備麥粥等冷食,借此紀念,這寒食粥便是因寒食節而流傳下來的節日飲食。

       


      標簽:寒食節 清明節 

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