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      寒食節

      寒食節是為了紀念誰 寒食節是什么節日

      時間:2018-12-26 12:19:12   作者:   來源:   閱讀:5   評論:0

        寒食節是為了紀念誰


        寒食節的源頭,應為遠古時期人類的火崇拜。古人的生活離不開火,但是火又往往給人類造成很大的災害,于是古人便認為火有神靈,要祀火。各家所祀之火,每年又要止熄一次。然后再重新燃起新火,稱為“改火”。改火時,要舉行隆重的祭祖活動,將谷神稷的象征物焚燒,稱為“人犧”。相沿成俗,便形成了后來的“禁火節”。


        “禁火節”后來又轉化為寒食節,用以紀念春秋時期晉國的名臣——介子推。傳說晉國公子重耳為逃避動亂,和介子推等臣子逃到偏遠的地方。在重耳饑餓的時候,介子推從自己腿上割下來了一塊肉,用火烤熟了就送給重耳吃。重耳回國執政后,大加封賞同甘共苦的臣子,唯獨忘了介子推。有人為介子推叫屈,重耳感到心中有愧,便差人去請介子推受賞封官?墒墙樽油浦x絕了重耳的封賞,背著自己的母親躲進了綿山。


        后來重耳親自到綿山恭請介子推,介子推還是不愿意。重耳便下令放火焚山,原意是想逼介子推露面,結果介子推抱著母親被燒死在一棵大樹下。重耳望著介子推的尸體,后悔不已,在安葬介子推時,發現他脊梁堵著個柳樹樹洞,洞里好似有什么東西。掏出一看,原來是片衣襟,上面題了一首詩:“割肉奉君盡丹心,但愿主公常清明。柳下作鬼終不見,強似伴君作諫臣。倘若主公心有我,憶我之時常自省。臣在九泉心無愧,勤政清明復清明!


        為了紀念介子推,重耳下令把綿山改為“介山”,在山上建立祠堂,并把放火燒山的這一天定為寒食節,每年這天禁忌煙火,只吃寒食。第二年,重耳領著群臣,素服徒步登山祭奠,表示哀悼。祭掃后,晉文公把復活的老柳樹命名為“清明柳”,又把這天定為清明節。


        寒食節是什么節日


        寒食節亦稱“禁煙節”“冷節”“百五節”,是沿襲了遠古的改火舊習。每到初春季節,氣候干燥,不僅人們保存的火種容易引起火災,而且春雷發生也易引起山火。古人在這個季節要進行隆重的祭祀活動,把上一年傳下來的火種全部熄滅,即是“禁火”,然后重新鉆燧取出新火,作為新一年生產與生活的起點,謂之“改火”或“請新火”。改火時,要舉行隆重的祭祀活動,將谷神稷的象征物焚燒,稱為人犧。相沿成俗,便形成了后來的禁火節。禁火與改火之間有間隔的時間,史料有三日、五日、七日等不同說法。而在這段無火的時間里,人們必須準備足夠的熟食以冷食度日,即為“寒食”,故而得名“寒食節”。寒食節前后綿延兩千余年,被稱為民間第一大祭日。


       寒食節要干什么


        寒食節在夏歷冬至后105日,清明節前一二日。是日初為節時,禁煙火,只吃冷食。并在后世的發展中逐漸增加了祭掃、踏青、秋千、蹴鞠、牽勾、斗雞等風俗,寒食節前后綿延兩千余年,曾被稱為中國民間第一大祭日。寒食節是中國傳統節日中唯一以飲食習俗來命名的節日。具體如下:


        禁火


        寒食節古代也叫“禁煙節”,家家禁止生火,都吃冷食。但因國人追憫先賢之情執著,從東漢到南北朝屢禁屢興,唐代皇家認可并參與。蘇軾的《望江南 超然臺作》中的“且將新火試新茶”說的就是寒食之后詩人煮茶的行為。山西民間禁火寒食的習俗多為一天,只有少數地方仍然習慣禁火三天。


        拜祖


        寒食節掃墓祭祖在南北朝到唐前被視為“野祭”。唐代編入《開元禮》“卷第八十七·王公以下拜掃(寒食拜掃附)”中,成為官方認同并倡導的吉禮之一。后演變為皇家祭陵;官府祭孔廟、祭先賢;百姓上墳等。時一家或一族人同到先祖墳地,致祭、添土、掛紙錢,然后將子推燕、蛇盤兔撒于墳頂滾下,用柳枝或疙針穿起,置于房中高處,意沾先祖德澤。


        插柳


        柳為寒食節象征之物,原為懷念介之推追求政治清明之意。早在南北朝《荊楚歲時記》就有“江淮間寒食日家家折柳插門”的記載,安徽、蘇州等地還盛行戴芥花,佩麥葉來代替柳枝。據各地史籍記載:“插柳于墳”、“折柳枝標于戶”、“插于檐插柳寢灶間”、“亦戴之頭或系衣帶”、“瓶貯獻于佛神”、“門皆插柳”,故民間有“清明(寒食)不戴柳,紅顏成白首”之說。


        踏青


        也叫踏春,盛興于唐宋。宋·李之彥《東谷所見》載:“拜掃了事,而后與兄弟、妻子、親戚、契交放情地游覽,盡歡而歸”。明代《帝王景物略》記京效踏青場景為:“歲(寒食)清明日,都人踏青,輿者,騎者,步者,游人以萬計!笨芍^盛極。


        秋千


        秋千原為古代寒食節宮廷女子游樂項目。五代王仁!堕_元天寶遺事》載“天寶宮中至寒食節竟豎秋千,令宮嬪輩戲笑以為宴樂。帝呼為半仙之戲,都中士民因而呼之”,宋代宰相文彥博詩《寒食日過龍門》,詩中描寫為 “橋邊楊柳垂青線,林立秋千掛彩繩!


        吃寒食


        寒食食品包括寒食粥、寒食面、寒食漿、青精飯及餳等;寒食供品有面燕、蛇盤兔、棗餅、細稞、神餤等;飲料有春酒、新茶、清泉甘水等數十種之多。其中多數寓意深刻,如祭食蛇盤兔,俗有“蛇盤兔,必定富”之說,意為企盼民富國強;子推燕,取介休方言“念念”不忘介推高風亮節……。


        晉南地區民間習慣吃涼粉、涼面、涼糕等等。晉北地區習慣以炒奇(即將糕面或白面蒸熟后切成骰子般大小的方塊,曬干后用土炒黃)作為寒食日的食品。一些山區這一天全家吃炒面(即將五谷雜糧炒熟,拌以各類干果脯,磨成面)。


        寒食節,民俗要蒸寒燕慶祝,用面粉捏成大拇指一般大的飛燕、鳴禽及走獸、瓜果、花卉等等,蒸熟后著色,插在酸棗樹的針刺上面,裝點室內,也作為禮品送人。

       


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