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      冬至節

      冬至節氣的習俗有哪些

      時間:2019-2-3 16:32:55   作者:   來源:   閱讀:0   評論:0

          冬至的習俗有哪些


          古代冬至習俗


          1、祭祀


          冬至節亦稱冬節、交冬。它既是二十四節氣之一,是中國的一個傳統節日,曾有“冬至大如年”的說法,宮廷和民間歷來十分重視,從周代起就有祭祀活動。


          2、吃水餃


          每年農歷冬至這天,不論貧富,餃子是必不可少的節日飯。諺云:“十月一,冬至到,家家戶戶吃水餃!边@種習俗,是因紀念“醫圣”張仲景冬至舍藥留下的。


          冬至吃餃子,是不忘“醫圣”張仲景“祛寒嬌耳湯”之恩。至今南陽仍有“冬至不端餃子碗,凍掉耳朵沒人管”的民謠。


          3、九九消寒


          入九以后,有些文人、士大夫者流,搞所謂消寒活動,擇一“九”日,相約九人飲酒(“酒”與“九”諧音),席上用九碟九碗,成桌者用“花九件”席,以取九九消寒之意。


          九九消寒歌:一九、二九不出手;三九、四九冰上走;五九到六九,沿河看楊柳;七九河冰開,八九燕子來;九九加一九,耕牛遍地走。


          冬至南北地區的傳統飲食習俗


          1、北京餛飩


          過去老北京有“冬至餛飩夏至面”的說法。相傳漢朝時,北方匈奴經常騷擾邊疆,百姓不得安寧。當時匈奴部落中有渾氏和屯氏兩個首領,十分兇殘。百姓對其恨之入骨,于是用肉餡包成角兒,取“渾”與“屯”之音,呼作“餛飩”。恨以食之,并求平息戰亂,能過上太平日子。因最初制成餛飩是在冬至這一天,在冬至這天家家戶戶都吃餛飩。


          2、南方餃子


          每年農歷冬至這天,不論貧富,餃子是必不可少的節日飯。諺云:“十月一,冬至到,家家戶戶吃水餃!边@種習俗,是因紀念“醫圣”張仲景冬至舍藥留下的。北方人吃混沌,南方人出餃子。


          冬至有哪些習俗


          【吃湯圓】


          在冬至這一天,溫州人都有吃湯圓或麻糍的習慣。長輩會趁著“碎息兒”(溫州方言,意為“孩子”)吃湯圓時進行家教,比如“吃了湯圓就要大一歲了”,勸孩子要更聽話,一切事情都要比去年做得更好。


          【曬湯圓粉】


          “冬節”前,不少人家會提前幾天將糯米碾成粉,用水拌糊,然后分成一小塊一小塊地擺在竹笪上曬成湯圓粉。湯圓粉曬干后放入洋油箱,要吃時拿幾塊出來用水浸開后使用。有的人家也會一下子曬很多,“冬節”前夕分送給鄰居親戚。


         【賣麻糍】


          每 當“冬節”前后,溫州老城的街巷里就會出現一些挑著擔賣麻糍的人。這些人一般來自郊區農村,他們事先在家將湯圓粉煮熟捏成團,再帶點白糖、豆沙粉,一路叫 賣,邊賣邊做。他們技術高超,一個麻糍經他雙手一轉動,就變成里面空心、外面光滑、像乒乓球那樣的麻糍團,然后餡上白糖和豆沙,味道香甜。


          【做節】


          在溫州地區的部分農村,“冬節”這一天,家家戶戶都要擺酒席祭拜祖先。將豬頭、雞、鴨、鵝、魚等幾樣東西用和盤盛著,向祖先祭拜,祭拜后一家人坐下吃,這叫作“做節”。


          【還天愿】


          有些人家在冬至這一天還舉行“還天愿”儀式。在年初所許下的一些心愿如果實現了,都必須在這一天還愿。所以溫州人評價一個人懶惰、干事情有精無彩時,會用“還愿”二字來諷刺,如“你這個人怎么干事情還愿恁,一點勁也沒有”。


          這 “還愿”也叫作“百家愿”,意思就是還愿時要端出“百家米”來還。百家米指的是用一百家的米來湊成,這樣才證明還了一百個心愿。但這“百家米”從哪湊呢? 據說,冬至這一天,討飯的乞丐最吃開,因為只有他們手中的米可當作“百家米”,所以一些人家都花高價將乞丐的米買來作祭拜還愿之用。


         【冬至民俗活動】


          冬至節亦稱冬節、交冬。它既是二十四節氣之一,是中國的一個傳統節日,曾有“冬至大如年”的說法,宮廷和民間歷來十分重視,從周代起就有祭祀活動。


          《周禮春官·神仕》:“以冬日至,致天神人鬼!蹦康脑谟谄砬笈c消除國中的疫疾,減少荒年與人民的饑餓與死亡!妒酚洝ば⑽浔炯o》:“其后二歲,十一月甲子朔旦冬至,推歷者以本統。天子親至泰山,以十一月甲子朔旦冬至日祠上帝明堂,每修封禪!


          《后漢書禮儀》:“冬至前后,君子安身靜體,百官絕事!边要挑選“能之士”,鼓瑟吹笙,奏“黃鐘之律”,以示慶賀。


          唐宋時,以冬至和歲首并重。南宋孟元老《東京夢華錄》:“十一月冬至。京師最重此節,雖至貧者,一年之間,積累假借,至此日更易新衣,備辦飲食,享祀先祖。官放關撲,慶祝往來,一如年節!


          潮汕冬至習俗


          冬至,是二十四節氣之一。據《月令七十二候集解》載:“十一月十五日,終藏之氣,至此而極也!薄锻ň曅⒔浽衿酢份d:“大雪后十五日,斗指子,為冬至,十五日中。陰極而陽始至,日南至,漸長至也!睋掇o!份d:“天文學上規定冬至為北半球冬季開始!倍,不僅是二十四節氣之一,同時也是潮汕地區民間一個大節日,有“小過年”之俗稱。


          潮汕各市縣冬至之習俗基本相同,都有祭祖先、吃甜丸、上墳掃墓等習俗。


          祭拜祖先:潮汕民間,在這一天備足豬肉、雞、魚等三牲和果品,上祠堂祭拜祖先,然后家人圍桌共餐,一般都在中午前祭拜完畢,午餐家人團聚。但沿海地區如饒平之海山一帶,則在清晨便祭祖,趕在漁民出海捕魚之前,意為請神明和祖先保佑漁民出海捕魚平安。


          吃甜丸:此習俗幾乎普及整個潮汕地區,但這個習俗還包含著一個有趣的陋俗:人們在這一天把甜丸祭拜祖先之后,拿出一些貼在自家的門頂、屋梁、米缸等處。為什么要這樣做呢?相傳有兩個原因:一是甜丸既甜又圓,是表示好意義,它預示明年又獲豐收,家人又能團聚。


          這一天家人如能不慎碰上它,更是好兆頭,這有如少數民族的“潑水節”一樣。如果這一天碰巧有外人上門拜訪,讓外人碰上它,這些外人也會交上好運。所以,這一天人們不希望有外人上門拜訪。一是專放給老鼠吃的。相傳五谷的種子,是老鼠從很遠很遠的地方咬來給農民種的,農民為報答老鼠的功勞,約定每年收割時,應留一小部分不收割,以便老鼠吃。


          后來,因為有一個貪心的人,把田里的五谷全收割了,老鼠一氣之下便向觀音娘娘投訴,觀音娘娘聽后也覺得可憐,便賜給它一副堅硬的牙齒,叫它以后搬進人家屋內居住,以便尋食,自此,老鼠便到處為害了。成為如今“四害之一”。然而,這個“到處貼甜丸”的陋俗畢竟行不久,它不僅不衛生,而且有損美觀和十分浪費,也就自然消亡了。而這個“吃甜丸”的習俗則一直流傳至今。


          上墳掃墓:這是冬至另一項活動。按潮汕習俗 ,每年上墳掃墓一般在清明和冬至,謂之“過春紙”和“過冬紙”。一般情況,人死后前三年都應行“過春紙”俗例,三年后才可以行“過冬紙”。但人們大多喜歡行“過冬紙”,原因是清明時節,經常下雨,道路難走;冬至時則氣候好,便于上山野餐。


          潮汕還有“吃了冬節圓多一歲”的俗諺。據載:“人們對此有二種解釋:一說冬至是小過年,過了小年也就應多加一歲了;一說此俗諺是出自犯人。古時每年秋天,都是殺人的季節,凡犯死罪的犯人一般都在秋季被處決,如果到冬至尚未處決,則循例可延至明年再處決,所以說‘又多一歲”’。


          潮汕習俗,是潮汕文化的一個內容。人們在長期的生活和社會實踐中,對于好的習俗便繼承下來,對于不好的陋俗就丟棄了。冬至這個“上墳掃墓”是紀念先人艱苦創業和“吃甜丸”是預示來年又獲豐收的習俗,自然就沿襲下來。


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